2019-03-23

乐趣网乐·学∣观察——揭开儿童之谜的钥匙!-乐融教育LearnroomKids

乐·学∣观察——揭开儿童之谜的钥匙!-乐融教育LearnroomKids


观察是老师了解如何制定日常计划和幼儿行为管理的唯一途径!
——玛利亚·蒙台梭利

中 文
作为一名蒙台梭利老师应该懂得如何观察孩子, 并且通过观察能够发现孩子的需要,在这个过程中,我们帮助孩子们成为自己的主人,遵从自己的意愿,这是一种精神服务的艺术。在一个成熟的蒙台梭利教室里,老师通过观察能够把孩子和环境有效地联系在一起,从而充分地利用环境来最大限度地帮助孩子实现自我价值。
然而, 我们经常会听见这样的抱怨:“平日里我们实在是太忙了,根本没时间去仔细观察孩子们!”或者大家会有这样的担忧,“如果我们都坐着观察孩子们,那就没有人能提供帮助,孩子们就不能专注地去做工作,有些孩子甚至会在教室里疯跑,从而会导致教室里出现混乱的局面亚马逊鲇鱼。”而事实上,如果我们能找到恰当的时机去观察孩子们的行为,并反思孩子们行为背后的动机以及我们需要做出的调整和改变,那么以上的困惑和担忧将不复存在!
既然观察能帮助我们解决这么多问题,那么我们应该怎样做才能成为一个有效的观察者呢?在观察的过程中,我们都有哪些注意事项呢?成为有效的观察者
A.观察孩子们的行为,并做出指导性的回应
B.老师必须要满足孩子们的成长需求:
1.老师一定要观察孩子的行为来了解孩子们的本质,并允许他们独立,
2.老师必须了解孩子是如何与环境互动的
?观察孩子与孩子,孩子与成人之间的互动现象
?观察孩子们选择与哪些材料,哪些人互动
?观察孩子们对哪些环境和学习材料感兴趣
?观察孩子们在活动中的专注力
?观察孩子们是否尊重学习材料和他人
?观察孩子在活动中对这些活动和教师的展示是如何反应的
3.老师必须对观察进行解析,以便创设更有效的环境;观察孩子与其他小朋友们的社交融合度,以便让互动更加有意义。
4.老师必须知道孩子是如何与老师,父母及同学互动的。
5.了解小朋友对老师,父母和小伙伴的态度,让老师们更清楚已经存在的联系.因此,老师们需要从已建立的联系中了解孩子们的性格。
C.通过观察老师要了解到孩子们需要额外的挑战和重复练习。
D.通过观察老师需要有能力判断何时干预孩子的工作观察的基本原则
很多人都认为观察是一件非常简单的事,但事实并非如此!想要成为一名真正的有效观察者,就必须提前准备好自己极路由官网 。只准备观察所需的工具或者只了解观察的重点是远远不够的。我们更应该准备好我们的眼睛,时刻锁定我们观察的对象。换句话说,老师必须预备好自己的感官,保持敏锐的观察力国防服役章 。要完成有效的观察,我们必须遵守以下几项重要原则:
A.在观察的过程中,我们一定要避免干扰孩子。那是因为,我们观察的初衷就是要看到孩子们不受外界干扰时的表现原田樱怜 。
B.观察者必须保持安静并且原地不动。这看似容易,其实对大多数人而言都非常具有挑战性。因为在观察的过程中,我们很容易显露出个人喜恶,并且很难控制我们的冲动南无乐队 ,想要和身旁的人沟通自己的观后感,因此,我们要练习如何在观察过程中保持安静和原地不动。
C.观察者必须控制好自己的冲动。在观察的时候,当看到一些特定画面时通关手,陈尊佑我们很容易就会产生介入的冲动!并且我们坚信自己当时的介入对他人一定是有益的。然而徽墨酥 ,当一个人在冲动情绪产生时,他/她认往往为这些冲动都是正确地,并且很少人会练习冲动控制。但是,在教室做观察时,我们必须控制好自己的冲动情绪以免干扰到孩子们而打断了他们的正常工作状态八号风球。
蒙台梭利认为没有不会学习的孩子,只有不懂孩子的成人。想要了解并读懂孩子,我们必须掌握观察这项重要的技能。通过观察,老师们能及时发现幼儿成长的需求。Herber Kohl 博士曾经说过:“通过观察,老师们能更好地向学生们打开自己,并使用内在动力帮助孩子们调整与其他人的联系,而不是用老师的权威。”
英 文
Dr. Maria Montessori believed that "The only way to know how to schedule the day and manage behavior (is) through observation.”
- Theories of Childhood
As for a Montessori teacher, he/she must know the proper way to observe a child, and how to interpret those observations in order to discover the child’s needs, a process which “helps the child act for himself, will himself, think for himself; this is the art of those who aspire to serve the spirit.”
In a mature Montessori classroom鹏博士宽带 , the teacher connects the child with the environment efficiently through observing the child, which guides him/her in how to make the most use of the environment and help the child to fulfill himself /herself to the utmost.
However, some teachers might complain: "We are too busy to sit down and do careful observations!” Some have even claimed, “ The children cannot focus if we don't support them. Some of them may run wild in the classroom if they're not being 'watched;' some of them may get into fights if the teachers are not around!” As a matter in fact, if teachers can seize the opportunity to do observations on their children and reflect on their observations to find out the motivations behind the children’s behaviors and the teachers make adjustments and changes according to the observation, all the worries and concerns mentioned above will disappear.
Careful observations can help us find solutions. So teachers must know how to do efficient observations. The following suggestions are strongly recommended:
● The Montessori Teacher:An Efficient Observer
A. The teacher must observe the child’sbehavior and respond to the child’s cues for guidance.
B. The teacher must fulfill the child’sneeds:
1. She must know the child’s nature and permit the child to beindependent.
2. She must know how behavior relates to his environment:
?She must observe the child’s interactionswith children and adults;
?She must observe the materials and peoplehe chooses to involve himself with;
?She must observe the child’s points ofinterest in the environment, and in the materials;
?Shemust observe the child’s attention and concentration on the activity;
?She must observe the child’s respect forthe materials and for others;
超时空救兵?She must observe specific activities thechild partakes in and how the child relates to these and to presentations
3. Moreover, the teacher must be able to interpret what is observed inorder to make the environment more effective.
4. To that end, also, she must know the child and how he relates to histeacher, his parents and his peers.
5. She mustunderstand the child’s attitude towards teachers燃情百加得 , parents and peers. And thenthe teacher can see the connections among them more clearly. Thus the teachermust build the connection with the child so as to get a better understanding ofthe child’s personality.
C. Through observations, the teacher must know thatthe child needs more challenges and more repeated practice.
D. Through observations夏健强 , the teacher must be able totell intuitively when it’s necessary to interrupt the child’s work.Basic Principles of Observation
Conducting an efficient observation is not easy. A good observer must prepare herself/himself carefully beforehand. Just as it is not sufficient to simply possess a microscope and to know how to focus it, it is also necessary to have the eye prepared to recognize relevant factors in an observation. Thus we might say in this case that a sensory preparation of the teacher is necessary. In order to do observations efficiently, we should follow these principles.
A.We should never disturb the children while observing them, because the purpose of the observation is to see what the children are doing independent of our presence.
B.The observer should remain absolutely silent and motionless, which seems pretty easy to accomplish, but is not always the case. In the course of observing the children, it may be very tempting to show our admiration or annoyance at something we observe曹濮生 , or to communicate our impressions to our neighbors. Thus we find ourselves faced by a real exercise, an exercise which we may call an exercise of conscious immobility, directed by our willpower.
C.Controlling Our Impulses. Most of us are accustomed to abandoning ourselves to our own impulses. We are convinced that our actions are always useful to others. Because in the world these impulses are considered good impulses, we have never performed exercises in order to control them. However, while doing observation in the classroom, we must control our impulses so as to control ourselves from disturbing the children.
“Montessori did not believe there were children who could not learn. She was convinced that if children were not learning, then the adults were not listening carefully enough or watching closely enough.”(P32 爱x无限大 ,Theories of Childhood) Observation is one of the most important skills a teacher can cultivate. Through observing the child, teachers can discover the child’s developmental needs quite directly. Just as Herbert Kohl notes; "Observation can expose the teacher to his pupil’s changing needs, and allow him to understand and utilize the internal dynamic adjustments the children make in relation to each other兰西天气预报, rather than imposing authority from without.” ( Kohl, 1967.P.23)

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