2015-02-22

伊能静老公是谁之 万花筒里看动物(二) 托福讲座学科背景-创师纪

之 万花筒里看动物(二) 托福讲座学科背景-创师纪
关注创师纪做更好的自己
周四 · 托福雅思备考稳
推荐
听力讲座
1804 North American Wood Frog
2103 Snake Evolution
2401 Crocodile Vocalization
2703 Sauropod
WHY
为何要了解学科背景知识凌逸群 ?
1、补学科短板
2、熟学科生词
3、求横向整合
托福考试中阅读、听力讲座和综合写作常有很多重合的学术话题,若能在补充完背景知识后,辅以两套匹配度高的题目,有助于背景知识的留存和学科词汇的活学活用。1
北美林蛙
(North American Wood Frog)
分布范围
林蛙分布范围北部至Georgia和Canada东北部,东部至Alaska龙tory吧 ,西部至British Columbia南部斗鱼阿科。
林蛙在土壤或叶凋落物中接近表面休眠(dormancy),木蛙可以耐受其血液和其他组织的冻结。伊能静老公是谁
尿素(urea)在组织中积累豪门重生手记 ,为过冬作准备八纮一宇 ,并且肝糖原(liver glycogen)由于内部结冰而大量转化为葡萄糖(glucose)。
尿素(urea)和葡萄糖都起到冷冻保护剂的作用,以限制形成的冰的量并减少细胞的渗透收缩(osmotic shrinkage)。李宇菲
“That first of all starts drawing water away from the center of its body, so the middle part of the frog, its internal organs, its heart, lungs, liver, these start getting drier and drier while the water that’s being pulled away is forming a puddle around the organs just underneath the skin. And then that puddle of water starts to freeze.”
题源:TPO18听力L4
2

(Snake)
毒蛇(venomous snakes)
毒蛇分泌(secrete)有毒物质(poisonous substances)或毒液(venom),如毒蛇族(the viper family)或眼镜蛇(cobras)。
无毒蛇(non-venomous snakes)
包括大蟒(constrictors)和蟒蛇(pythons.)硬汉学校。
进化(Evolution)
所有蛇的共同祖先是毒蜥。后来之所以出现毒蛇和无毒蛇,原因在于,其实所有蛇都可以分泌毒液。只不过大多数毒蛇,如眼镜蛇,毒液被用来捕捉和固定猎物; 而无毒蛇只有在猎物进入蛇的嘴巴后弹跳哥,毒液才会滴到猎物上。
“The researchers found that venom evolved before snakes even existed, about a hundred million years before. Now, a couple of venomous lizards were included in this study. And the researchers found some of the same DNA in their venom as in the snakes’ venom. This suggested that the common ancestor of all snakes was actually a venomous lizard, which means that actually, according to this research, anyway, in terms of the snakes’ ancestry, there is no such thing as a non-venomous snake, not even colubrids. ”
题源:TPO21听力L3
3
鳄鱼
(Crocodile Vocalization)
鳄鱼发声在所有爬行动物(reptiles)中最响亮重振大明 ,它们能在各种情况和条件下产生各种各样的声音,声音取决于物种凝欢,年龄半劫小仙,体型和性别。
啁啾(Chirp)
鳄鱼蛋即将孵化时,鳄鱼幼雏发出“chirp”声,鼓励雌性鳄鱼挖掘巢穴。雌性鳄鱼将幼雏聚集放入嘴里,并将它们运送到水中,留在群体数月陈龙象,期间受到雌性鳄鱼的保护。
遇险呼叫(Distress call)
年幼动物的高声呼叫天诛红 ,以提醒其他鳄鱼即将发生危险或动物受到攻击。
威胁呼叫(Threat call)
鳄鱼发出“嘶嘶声”,类似咳嗽声易趴 。
A hissing sound that has also been described as a coughing noise.
孵化呼叫(Hatching cal)
由雌性鳄鱼在繁殖时发出,以提醒其他鳄鱼她已将鳄鱼蛋放入自己的巢穴。
咆哮(Bellowing)
雄性鳄鱼发出。
“If you were to go to a swamp during the breeding season, you’d hear a chorus of sounds. Deep grunts, hisses… These are sounds that male alligators make, and some of them are powerful enough to make the water vibrate. This sends a strong “go away” message to the other males, so the alligator can focus on sending other sound waves through the water… sound waves that you and I couldn’t even hear since they’re such low frequency. But they do reach the female alligator莫懿 , who then goes to find, and mate with, the male. Vocalization is, um, well, it’s used for other reasons… like getting attention or dis—ah, letting others know that you’re distressed.”
题源:TPO24听力L1
4
蜥脚类动物
(Sauropod)
蜥脚类动物是史上最大的动物之一淘爆网 , 体积比蓝鲸(blue whales)还大, 体重达一百吨,是大象(elephants)的二十倍全职家丁。
“What we’ve found is that sauropods were experts at conserving energy. They had enormous stomach capacity, the ability to digest food over a long period, converting it to energy at a slower pace, saving it for later. For animals with small stomachs, it takes lots of energy to constantly look for food and then digest it. With larger stomachs and slower digestion, you don’t need as much energy. “
题源:TPO27听力L3
学科词
puddle n. 水坑,泥潭
circulatory system [解剖] 循环系统
glucose n. 葡萄糖;
lifespan n. 寿命;
impact vt. 影响
poisonous adj.有毒的,恶毒的
venom n.毒液,恶毒
resemble v.类似,像
evolution n.演变,进化
protein n.蛋白质
prey n.被捕食的动物
colubrid n.[动物]无毒蛇类,游蛇类
ancestry n.祖先,血统
dinosaur n.恐龙
fossil n.化石
sauropod n.蜥脚类恐龙
offspring n.后代,子孙
conserve v.保存
digest v.消化
hypothesis n.假设
chew v.咀嚼
grind up 磨碎
gastrolith n.胃石
Aquatic Animal
往期回顾
17
5-2018
生命科学-水生动物
鲸鱼、章鱼、海豚、南极鱼
10
5-2018
自然科学-解锁能源认知
太阳能、风能、可再生能源
16
3-2018
艺术美学-一幅图看懂艺术流派
印象派、表现派
8
3-2018
天文学-3分钟看懂各种星
流星、彗星、小行星
22
2-2018
地质学-冰河时代
大冰期、间冰期、小冰河时代
15
2-2018
地质学-火山
板块移动、热点移动、盾形火山
创师纪
周末丨漫谈教书与创业
周一丨将听写进行到底
周二丨传授留学申请经
周三丨治愈系灵修分享
周四丨托福雅思备考稳
周五丨包治怂癌的仿写
不追热点与爆款
做有态度的双语知识分享
关注创师纪
做更好的自己